Saturday, February 27, 2010

Lance Corporal John Babcock

Canada's Last Surviving WW1 Soldier

John Henry Foster Babcock was Canada's last surviving First World War Soldier (WW1; Great War). He died at his home in Spokane, Washington at the age of 109 on Thursday February 18th 2010. Unlike other CEF WW1 Soldier Blogs contained in this collection, this blog contains a number of news releases that relate to the final years of John Babcock.

Private John Babcock Joins the CEF

John Babcock attested to the Canadian Expeditionary Force on February 1, 1916 at Sydenham, Ontario. Images of his Attestation Papers and links to the files at Library and Archives Canada are provided. Unlike many others, John Babcock did not lie about his age to join the CEF, as his papers clearly show his date of birth as July 23rd, 1900. Oddly enough, however, the second page of his attestation papers shows his ""Apparent Age" as 18 years.

The birth records for John Babcock, showing his birth date as July 23, 1900 were kindly provided by CEFSG member Annette Fulford: Record1Record2

A complete set of John Babcock's military service record has been posted to the "CEF MATRIX PROJECT MEDIAFIRE: F2 CEF Service Records". Special thanks to CEFSG Member Mike O'Leary of the Royal Canadian Regiment for providing these records for this private military research.

Private Babcock, as he was at that time, listed his address as Perth Road, in Lober Township, Ontario. His father was deceased and thus he listed his next-of-kin as his mother, Annie Isabel Babcock in Regina, Saskatchewan. Elsewhere he also listed his next-of-kin as his brother William James Babcock of Holleford, Ontario. His brother's records ( William James Babcock #835860) that although the elder at age 24, he did not attest to the 146th until April 4, 1916. Both John and William survived the Great War.

John reported his occupation as a Labourer and his religion as a Methodist. He was a small man, even for a soldier in 1916, as his records show his height as 5 feet 4 1/2 inches with only a a 33 inch girth at full chest expansion. His "Medical History Sheet" shows his weight at a mere 118 pounds. His subsequent medical examination when leaving the service in November 1918 shows his weight had increased to only 122 pounds.

Other documents filed for John Babcock list his place of birth as Holleford, Ontario - a place now in the area of South Frontenac, north of Kingston Ontario. His discharge papers report that he enlisted at Sydenham, Ontario. Documents show that John joined the 146th Canadian Infantry Battalion, which is confirmed by his Service Number (#835571). The block of 835001-838000 was assigned to the 146th Infantry Battalion, located in Military District 3 when it was organized on December 22, 1915. The 146th Battalion did not serve as a fighting unit in the Great War, as after shipping out it was broken up and absorbed by the 12th Reserve Battalion to provide reinforcements for the Canadian Corps in the field.

Service Record of John Babcock

The details of John Babcock's service record show that in September 1916 he was being paid as a member of "No. 1 Boy, Special Service Battalion" at the main CEF staging base in Valcartier, Quebec.

Initially taken on strength with the 146th Canadian Infantry Battalion on May 24, 1916 his records show he was transfered to the 239th Battalion on September 21, 1916 and then to the 95th Infantry Battalion on October 8, 1916. His papers are stamped "Unit Sailed September 25, 1916", which is more or less in agreement with the sailing of the 146th in late September 1916 (see Matrix Troopship Utility). We know from his service file that John Babcock did not sail with that unit at that time.

It was around this time in later September or early October 1916 that John Babcock's unit details changed. His service record clearly shows that he did not sail with his unit on September 25th but rather shipped out from Halifax with the 151st Battalion on board the S. S. California on October 4, 1916, arriving in Liverpool on October 13, 1916. Documents show he was taken-on-strength with the RCR-PPCLI Depot at Caesar's Camp (Bedfordshire, England) on October 13, 1916.

In January 1, 1917 Babcock was transferred to the 7th Reserve Battalion at Seaford and subsequently transferred to the 26th Reserve Battalion on February 7, 1917. From there he was struck-off-strength to the Boys Battalion at Seaford on August 8, 1917. On September 22, 1917 Private Babcock's rank was upgraded to "Acting Lance Corporal", with pay. His rank was progressed to Acting Corporal on October 12, 1917, until such time he was demoted due to "Neglect of Duty", at which time he was reduced to his permanent grade as Private (Bramshot, England March 6, 1918). On October 7, 1918 he was once again appointed Acting Lance Corporal while at Kemmel Park.

John Babcock is shown on discharge as having been originally in the "Young Service Battalion". He embarked England (perhaps suggesting he was serving outside England) on November 22, 1918 and Canada on November 29, 1918. Clearly Babcock's "Discharge Certificate" shows that he served only in Canada and England. He arrived back in Canada on the S. S. Aquitania on November 28, 1918. His records report that his address on leave was Hartington, Ontario and that his mother now resided on Vancouver, British Columbia. On December 1, 1918 he was taken-on-strength with the 3rd District Depot for disposal. On December 21, 1918 he refused treatment for dental matters.

He was struck-off-strength from the Canadian Expeditionary Force at Kingston, Ontario on January 11, 1919, as part of the formal demobilization process. His age at discharge was recorded as 18 years 7 months.

Soldier John Babcock in the Young Soldiers Battalion

Private Babcock's Army Form B.103 (Casualty Form - Active Service) has a hand-written notation at the top that states "Not to be sent overseas until 19 years of age", yet the form still shows his age on enlistment as 18. It was the "Opinion of the Medical Board" on September 18, 1916 that Private Babcock was "Fit for Special Service" with the recommendation that he be transfered to Special Service.

At the time of his discharge it was acknowledged that he had attested at 16 years of age and that he was both "under aged" and "undersized". His general physical condition was listed as "slight" with a chest measurement that was "under normal". John was also missing the distal phalanx (the terminal piece) of the fourth toe on his left foot. None of these afflictions were due to service in the CEF and it was deemed that he would be able to carry on as he would have prior to enlistment.

Lance Corporal John Babcock as a "Royal Canadian"

It is reported that Private Babcock was a "Royal Canadian", meaning that he saw service with the Royal Canadian Regiment of 7th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division. For details on this linkage to the RCR, see the information provided by Captain Michael O'Leary, Royal Canadian Regiment 2010. On April 1, 1918, Acting Lance Corporal Babcock's Pay Records show that he was serving with a "Draft of the Royal Canadian Regiment". John Babcock's "Last Pay Certificate" at discharge on January 11, 1919 documents that he had attained the rank of Lance Corporal with the RCR (Royal Canadian Regiment).

Friday, February 19, 2010

Winnipeg Free Press February 18, 2010

OTTAWA - He was an unlikely and reluctant figurehead for a generation of heroes, a self-described "tin soldier" whose teenaged zeal for combat conspired to keep him out of the very war that would one day cast him as its sole Canadian survivor.

John Babcock was destined to play a starring role in the First World War. It just came nearly a century later than he might have expected.

Babcock, the last known veteran of Canada's First World War army, died Thursday at the age of 109.

He went in search of military glory at the age of 16, when he tried to sneak his way on to the front lines in France. His ruse was discovered, however, and he never made it to the battlefield.

"I wanted to go to France because I was just a tin soldier," Babcock said in an interview with The Canadian Press in July 2007 at his home in Spokane, Wash.

He was born July 23, 1900 on a farm in Ontario and emigrated to the U.S. in the 1920s.

"I volunteered (for the front lines), but they found out I was underage. If the war had lasted another year I would have fought."

Still, more than 80 years of hindsight had helped to temper that young man's regret over not having faced enemy fire in the trenches of France u unlike many of his friends, who never returned.

"I might have got killed," he said matter-of-factly.

Prime Minister Stephen Harper, in a statement Thursday announcing Babcock's death, said: "As a nation, we honour his service and mourn his passing."

"The passing of Mr. Babcock marks the end of an era. His family mourns the passing of a great man. Canada mourns the passing of the generation that asserted our independence on the world stage and established our international reputation as an unwavering champion of freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law."

Gov. Gen Michaelle Jean said Babcock always gave the best of himself.

"You know how dear the members of the Canadian Forces and our veterans are to my heart. And while I am deeply moved and saddened, I am also very honoured to be the Commander-in-Chief and Governor General to pay final tribute to Mr. Babcock."

"On behalf of all Canadians, we extend our deepest sympathies to his family and many friends who mourn his passing. May his accomplishments and his example inspire many future generations to serve their nation."

Ten per cent of the roughly 600,000 Canadians who enlisted to fight in the First World War died on the battlefields of Europe u 170,000 more were wounded.

The war would ultimately claim 15 million civilian and military lives on both sides of the conflict.

"(Babcock) was both an individual and a symbol," said Rudyard Griffiths, of the Historica-Dominion Institute, an organization dedicated to promoting Canadian history. "We should honour his contribution to Canada."

In the days to come, there will no doubt be tributes and ceremonies to mark Babcock's passing. It's hard to say how he would react to the fanfare. Because he never saw action in the war, he was always a little uncomfortable being known as the last surviving First World War veteran.

"I really didn't accomplish very much," Babcock said. "I went there and I did what the people above told me to do."

He said he had heard rumours about the government holding a state funeral for him, but wasn't sure that's an honour he deserves.

"I think it should be for the fellows who spent time in the front lines and were actually in the fighting."

Babcock wanted badly to be right there with them. "I wasn't smart enough to be scared," he explained.

"While he didn't serve, he was emblematic of that generation and of a certain kind of fiestiness," said Griffiths. "I know he felt quite proud of the Canadian period of his life."

Duncan Graham, a Korean War veteran whose father served in the First World War, said Babcock was the last living member of a generation that he and other veterans looked up to.

"I've got great respect for them. The war they fought was completely different from the war I fought, where we had the luxury of tanks and armoured vehicles," he said. "What they went through during the war in the trenches... we didn't have to see what they had to see."

As an underage volunteer, Babcock was stuck digging ditches and doing endless military drills rather than fighting enemy soldiers. But he said he had vivid memories of the war, and the day an army sergeant inspired him to enlist.

"He came and told us about the charge of the light brigade," he said, referring to the recklessly brave British cavalry attack of the Crimean War, immortalized in a famous poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson. "I was really impressed by that."

Frustrated that he had been relegated to loading freight onto army trucks in Halifax, Babcock lied about his age when he answered the call for volunteers to join a "peacetime regiment."

"When they asked me how old I was, I said 18. Well, when we got to England you had to be 19 to go to France," recalled Babcock.

"I was waiting to be 19 and my service record came through, and they found out I was 16, so they put me in the young soldiers' battalion."

Babcock joined 1,300 other underaged soldiers and was drilled eight hours a day, always with an eye on reaching the front. By October 1918, the then 18-year-old Babcock was awaiting training that would send him to the battlefields of France.

That same month, some Canadian soldiers were kicked out of a dance hall in Wales by British Army veterans. Babcock and other members of his battalion decided "to go up there and clean them."

The ensuing brawl, in which one Canadian soldier was bayoneted in the thigh by a British cadet, saw Babcock handed 14 days of house arrest. Before those two weeks were up, the Armistice had been signed and he was on his way home.

Babcock has said that he worried that Canadians today, children especially, aren't learning enough about the First World War.

"They don't know a lot about it. People are always thinking about what they're doing right now," he said, adding that Canadians should take the time to learn from veterans of the World Wars while they still can.

Griffiths shares that concern. Without "living reminders" like Babcock around anymore, he said, he worries that the history of the First World War will fade into obscurity, much like the War of 1812 has.

"The duty not to forget now falls on a generation who has never known war, who's been separated from the history of the Great War by a period of going on 90 years. I think there is a danger (that people will forget)," he said.

Houchang Hassan-Yari, a professor of international relations at the Royal Military College, said that Canadians need to know about the Great War to understand how the country was born.

"Babcock's generation was important because they witnessed a transition for Canada from a member of the British Dominion to an independent state," he said, explaining that Canada's new-found military presence on the international stage helped the country find its own identity.

Babcock himself, however, emigrated to the United States in the 1920s and served a brief stint in the U.S. military.

"When he came back to Canada he really didn't have a home to come back to; his father was killed when he was six years old," said his wife.

"He had heard that in the United States the (military) was going to train people in a trade, so he and a couple of other buddies decided to come."

Babcock met his first wife, Elsie, while working as an oil burner service man in San Francisco. The couple moved to Spokane in 1932, raised a son and a daughter, and spent every weekend golfing.

Babcock married his second wife, Dorothy, after Elsie died in the late 1970s.

In September 2006, at the age of 106, he managed to get out for a game of golf. While he lacked the balance to putt, he was still able to drive.

When asked what lessons this generation should take from the First World War, Babcock had a simple reply.

"I think it would be nice if all the different people in the world could get along together so we weren't having wars. I don't suppose that'll ever happen, though."

Find this article at: Winnipeg Free Press

AND from BBC News on February 19, 2010

Final Canadian WWI veteran dies

The last Canadian veteran of World War I has died at the age of 109.

John Babcock enlisted at the age of 15 after lying about his age. He trained in Canada and England but the war ended before he reached the French frontline.

Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper said Mr Babcock was Canada's last living link to the Great War.

At least three other people who served with the forces in World War I are known to still be alive - an American, a British-born Australian and a Briton.

The Canadian prime minister, paying tribute to the 650,000 Canadian men and women who served during WW1, said: "Today they are all gone.

"Canada mourns the passing of the generation that asserted our independence on the world stage and established our international reputation as an unwavering champion of freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law," Mr Harper said.

“ I wanted to go to France because I was just a tin soldier ”

John Babcock Speaking in 2007

John Babcock was born on July 23, 1900 on a farm in Ontario.

In February 1916, at the age of 15, he signed up and the medical examiner recorded his "apparent age" as 18, which meant he was allowed to train.

Despite being under the legal age to fight, which was 19, he persisted in his attempts to get to the front line.

He lied about his age again, and sailed to Britain with the Royal Canadian Regiment. There, conscripts under the legal age of 19 formed the Young Soldiers' Battalion to train until they were eligible to fight.

But he never saw action as the armistice was signed six months before he reached his 19th birthday.

"I wanted to go to France because I was just a tin soldier," Mr Babcock said in an interview with the Canadian Press in July 2007.

Second attempt

In October 1918, after a brawl between Canadian soldiers and British Army veterans in Wales over a dancehall incident, Mr Babcock was sentenced to 14 days house arrest, the Canadian Press reported.

Before the fortnight was over, the armistice had been signed and he was on his way home.

He moved to the US in the 1920s, serving in the United States Army between 1921 and 1924 before becoming an electrician.

He died in Spokane, Washington, where he had lived since 1932, according to a statement from Mr Harper.

Mr Babcock tried to enlist in the US military again in 1941 but failed when it was discovered he had never become a US citizen.

He was naturalised as a US citizen in 1946.

Story from BBC NEWS:
Published: 2010/02/19 04:50:09 GMT